(Video Footage: MEGAQUAKE - Hour that Shook Japan)
A bridge can collapse, you and hundreds of other cars falling to the cold water below, far from shore, far from any hope of immediate rescue...
There are very few disasters as unpredictable as an earthquake. The good news is that if you're well-prepared, you and those you care for can usually come out unhurt. SecretsofSurvival.com reveals how to prepare for and be ready for an earthquake: What survival supplies to have on hand and how to escape quake damage once shaking gets violent.
In the 4th Century BC, Aristotle proposed that earthquakes were caused by winds trapped in subterranean caves.
A later theory stated that earthquakes occurred in calm, cloudy conditions, and were usually preceded by strong winds, fireballs, and meteors. However, there is no immediate connection between weather and quakes. They are instead the result of geologic processes within the earth and can happen in any weather and at any time during the year.
The earth is not really one solid mass, but is in fact made up of several immense plates that are always pushing against one another. It's a bit like being on a crowded subway; the plates making up the earth are so tightly pushed together that there is always a struggle for room. Eventually, this pressure becomes so great between certain plates that they finally move, violently shifting their position. That is a tectonic earthquake. These constant struggles and shiftings of the earth are global tectonics. These are usually the most devastating of all quakes.
Tectonics can cause inland areas to become coastal or vice versa. During 1811-1812, the region around New Madrid, Missouri experienced three tectonic quakes so massive they rerouted the mighty Mississippi River and were felt up to 1000 miles away.
Earthquakes can occur in an area before, during, and after a volcanic eruption, and are the result of active forces connected with the eruption, but are not the cause of the volcanic activity itself.
Man-induced earthquakes are often caused by such things as the deep-sea drilling that has occurred in recent years. Such activity deep into the earth can sometimes increase pressure on the plates, making a tense situation much worse.
The American Red Cross came up with the drop, cover and hold method. Drop under a sturdy desk or table, protect your eyes by pressing your face against your arm and hold on. Teach children the method as well, and practice with your family at least twice a year.
If however you feel safer under the doorway, it's still certainly a good option.
However, probabilities can be calculated for potential future earthquakes. For example, scientists estimate that over the next 30 years there's a 67% probability of a major earthquake occurring in the San Francisco Bay area. Scientists often focus their efforts on the long-term mitigation of earthquake hazards by helping to improve the safety of structures rather than creating short-term predictions.
But it's possible the change in animal behavior may be caused by other events. Also, the behavior is not consistent; sometimes earthquakes occur with no previous behavioral change.
The plates are moving horizontally past one another, so California is not going to fall into the ocean. However, Los Angeles and San Francisco will one day be adjacent to one another!
There have, however, been some small but significant correlations reported by the University of California at Berkeley between tide change and the rate of occurrence of aftershocks in some volcanic regions.
To paraphrase the American Red Cross: 'It's not the shaking that hurts. It's the stuff that falls on your head'. Collapsing walls, flying glass and falling objects cause most quake-related injuries and deaths.
Look around your house for things that could fall or move. Ask yourself what may happen if your cupboard doors fly open during a quake, allowing dishes or God-knows-what to fall across the floor. Is the TV and stereo fastened down and are shelves fastened to walls? Do you have hanging plants or light fixtures that might fall? Is there a heavy picture or mirror on the wall over your bed?
Know the danger spots. Secure all tall and heavy furniture that could topple over, such as bookcases, china cabinets or wall units. Hang heavy pictures and mirrors away from beds, couches, and anywhere people sit. Keep breakables or heavy objects on bottom shelves.
Stay clear of windows, fireplaces, or appliances if a quake hits; stay out of the kitchen - it's a dangerous place. In short, stay away from anything that could conceivably fall on you. Don't run downstairs or rush outside while the building is shaking, or while there is a danger of falling or being hit by falling glass or debris.
Secure a water heater by strapping it to wall studs and bolting it to the floor.
Before and after a quake, repair any deep cracks in ceilings, chimneys, or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects. Unnoticed damage could cause a fire - or worse.
Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks.
Make sure you have a properly installed and working smoke detector in your home/apartment.
Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves.
Keep food and water supplies on hand. You should be prepared to take care of yourself and loved ones for a period of 72 hours. This is how long it is estimated for help to arrive, as they have to deal with the same predicaments as you.
Create a family disaster plan. Discuss with your family the types of disasters that could occur. Explain to your kids how to prepare and respond to each type of disaster. Print the plan for everyone.
Post emergency telephone numbers by every phone. Teach children how and when to call 911, police, fire department, and which radio station to tune to for emergency information.
Learn first aid and CPR. Contact your local American Red Cross chapter for information and training.
Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water.
Learn how to help kids cope with disaster.
Have two places where everyone can meet. One will be your home, but you should have a second in case there's a problem. It should be a safe distance from your house in case of a home fire, and a place outside your neighborhood in case you can't immediately return.
Choose an out-of-state friend as a check-in contact for everyone to call.
Discuss where to go and what to bring if advised to evacuate. Practice what you have discussed.
Find out about earthquake plans developed by your children's school or day care. Remember, transportation may be disrupted.
Keep some emergency supplies - food, liquids, and comfortable shoes, for example - at work.
Locate your nearest fire and police stations and emergency medical facility.
Talk to your neighbors - how could they help you, or you them after an earthquake.
Also, be prepared for aftershocks. They are strong enough to topple more buildings, sever utility lines and hurt you hours, days, weeks - even months after the main quake. If your house is in solid shape, stay indoors if an aftershock hits.
The greatest precaution? Develop the habit of thinking, "If an earthquake happened right now, what would I do?" This will prepare you to react and not be surprised when it happens. And it will aid with your preparations.
Time to get real.
The Office of Emergency Services and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) are right. They, and local fire departments, recommend you self-equip with everything on their list. You don't want to fight the crowd at Home Depot - unless that's your idea of fun.
The kit, kept in a durable container such as the Rubbermaid Roughtote, should include:
WATER - Plan on using one gallon of water per person per day. Store three gallons of water for each person and pet (72 hours worth). Also, pack purification tablets or chlorine bleach to purify drinking water from other sources. Emergency water may be obtained from water heaters, melted ice cubes, toilet tanks (the back part of toilets where the mechanism is located), and canned vegetables.
Avoid drinking water from swimming pools or especially spas - it may have too many chemicals in it to be safe.
FOOD - Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food. It's best to have enough canned and dried foods sufficient for a week for each member of your household. Note: both water and food stores should be replaced every so often to maintain freshness. Canned goods have a normal shelf-life of one year for maximum freshness.
FIRST AID KIT AND HANDBOOK - Have two copies of each, one for your home and one for your car.
TOOLS - Vital stuff you won't miss until you realize it's unobtainable. Your emergency tools should consist of:
*Crescent and pipe wrenches to turn off gas and water pipes.
*Flashlights with extra bulbs and batteries. Also battery-operated lanterns for the evening hours.
*Portable radio with extra batteries.
*Non-electric, hand-held can opener. Also, a bottle opener and non-breakable eating and drinking utensils.
*Extra food for pets if necessary.
*Camp stove or barbecue to cook outdoors (store fuel out of the reach of children). This will be a portable stove using butane or charcoal. Note: Use of such stoves should not take place until it is determined that there is no gas leak in the area. Also, charcoal should only be burned outdoors; use of charcoal indoors will lead to carbon monoxide poisoning.
*Waterproof, heavy-duty plastic bags, a shovel and toilet paper. Also, bring disinfectant and hand sanitizer. Sewer lines may have been disrupted during the earthquake.
*Nylon rope and duct tape.
*Portable fire escape ladder for homes/apartments with multiple floors.
*Telephone numbers of police, fire, and doctor. Also, make sure you have access to a phone.
*A small amount of money.
CLOTHING & BEDDING - If the disaster's bad enough, all the hotels will be full. That means your car's back seat becomes your bedroom. Pack protective clothing, rainwear, and bedding or sleeping bags in your kit, as well as extra blankets and heavy clothing, including rubber-soled shoes and work gloves.
MEDICINE AND SPECIAL ITEMS - Keep adequate supplies for babies, the elderly or disabled and others with special needs.
COPIES of important papers should be kept in a fireproof container or a safe deposit box with a key you always carry.
If you are outside, get into the open - away from buildings, power lines, chimneys, and anything else that might fall on you. If you are driving, quickly but carefully move your car as far out of traffic as possible and stop. Do not stop on or under a bridge or overpass or under trees, light posts, power lines, or signs. Stay inside your car until the shaking stops.
When you resume driving, stay away from breaks in the pavement, fallen rocks, bumps in the road at bridge or ramp approaches, and anything else that doesn't look 'right'. If you are in a mountainous area watch out for falling rock, landslides, trees, and other debris that could be loosened by quakes.
Do not use matches, lighters, camp stoves, barbecues, electrical equipment or any appliances until you are sure there are no gas leaks. They may create a spark that could ignite leaking gas and cause an explosion.
Do not use your telephone, except for a medical or fire emergency. You could tie up the lines needed for emergency response. If an emergency occurs and the phone doesn't work, send someone for help.
Do not expect firefighters, police or paramedics to definitely be there for you. They may not be available.
Remember, the contents of your home may be damaged and can be dangerous. Quakes can make light fixtures fall, and bookcases and television sets topple over even after the shaking is over.
Check for injuries to yourself and those around you; give first aid where you can. If a person is bleeding, put direct pressure on the wound and use clean gauze, or cloth if available. If a person is not breathing administer CPR. Do not attempt to move seriously injured persons unless they are in further danger of injury. Cover the wounded with blankets to keep them warm. Seek medical help for serious injuries.
Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.
Open closet and cupboard doors cautiously.
Inspect the entire length of chimneys carefully for damage. Unnoticed cracks could lead to a fire. Also inspect your gas, power and sewer lines. If your utilities are damaged, fix them or get out until you can have someone else do so. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information.
Remember to check neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, the elderly, and people with disabilities.
Stay out of buildings known to be damaged. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Only drive if there's an emergency. Keep the streets clear for emergency vehicles.
Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information. Return home only when authorities say it is safe.
After the earthquake, brace overhead light fixtures. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on earthquakes.
*Gas leaks - If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noises, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional. Therefore, shut off the main gas valve only if you suspect a leak because of broken pipes or odor. Also, don't light your kitchen stove if you suspect a gas leak.
*Damaged electrical wiring - If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice. Do not touch downed or damaged power lines or any objects in contact with them.
*Sewage and water lines damage - If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.
*Downed or damaged chimneys - Approach chimneys with caution after a quake. Don't use a damaged chimney; it could start fire or let poisonous gases into your house.
*Fallen Items - Beware of items tumbling off shelves when you open doors of closets and cupboards.
*Food and Water Supplies - Do not eat or drink anything from open containers near shattered glass. If power is off, plan meals to use up foods that will spoil quickly or frozen foods (food in the freezer should be good for at least a couple of days).
The behavior of pets may change dramatically after an earthquake. Normally quiet and friendly cats and dogs may become aggressive or defensive. Watch animals closely. Leash dogs and place them in a fenced yard.
Pets may not be allowed into shelters for health and space reasons.
Prepare an emergency pen for pets in the home that includes a 3-day
supply of dry food and a large container of water.
We hope this relatively short article on earthquake survival will help those who experience a quake. Unlike hurricanes, tornadoes, or practically any other natural 'correction', we never know when an earthquake is going to occur. Therefore the very best thing is to prepare yourself and your family before the disaster strikes.