Prepping for Disaster
EMP (Electro-Magnetic Pulse)
End of Days
How to Survive A U.S. Government Collapse ... and a Complete Decapitation of America's Leadership, Leaving No Survivors
ABC's "Designated Survivor" gives viewers a close look at events following a horrific terrorist attack that kills the President and just about everyone in line for the Presidency -- essentially decapitating the U.S. government, killing everyone at the U.S. Capitol Building on Inauguration Day, and turning the building into nothing but rubble and ruins.
What happens if a second terrorist attack gets the "Designated Survivor" as well? A complete collapse of the U.S. government and potentially multiple Civil Wars... That's just day one... How to Survive America's Worst Nightmare
That's just day one... How to Survive America's Worst Nightmare
140 Survival Supplies List Military and Civilian Survival Gear
A useful list of 137 common and odd pieces of survival gear for military and civilian survival kits. You're sure to find a survival tool from this list if you know it does and what it's used for.
50 Critical Items to Survive Disaster
Highly effective multi-use survival tools and items for surviving a catastrophic disaster or economic collapse.
It's a continuing theme making its way into scripts and movies. Why are these shows a hit? Because, more and more, people are concerned about events in the world and just about anyone with an ear to what's happening realizes that dark storm clouds are building on America's horizon each year that passes, and the dangers only increase. And it's not just America in danger. U.S. allies have just as much to fear, maybe even more so.
U.S. allies have a lot to lose if U.S. government collapsesWhy? Because if America goes down, each U.S. ally is now on their own, most with a lot closer proximity to enemies who have the power to destroy and invade. The U.K. is in close proximity to Russia, and so is Canada (just over the Arctic Circle).
Japan, South Korea, Australia and even New Zealand are in close proximity to China, and especially China's navy.
If you've been paying attention, both Russia's and China's military build up in recent years has made them a threat to U.S. and allied interests around the world.
Growing threat of doomsday eventsWe may truly see a doomsday event or series of events in our lifetime. Some live as though it's only a few months away.
What to do to prepare?Knowing that disastrous events can suddenly take place on just your average day of the week, with ferocity and violence and a large loss of human life, living with that understanding may be what helps you be properly prepared and more able to cope mentally (and spiritually for our Christian readers) when sudden disaster strikes.
The next 9-1-1... The next Pearl Harbor.
An American Nagasaki. An American Hiroshima (a term in fact that Bin Laden coined when reportedly seeking nuclear weapons at one point in the past).
Ground ZeroDo you live in or near an area that could be a "Ground Zero" for the first attack or series of attacks? You've got even more to be concerned about.
U.S. Capitol Building turned into a smoking crater - everyone's deadMaybe it's an attack on the U.S. capitol that takes our President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Attorney General and right on down the list of people in line for the presidency .... until there's no one left alive on that list -- including a "Designated Survivor." An intelligent and thorough attack may take out him or her as well. Immediate chaos would ensue as state governments in all 50 states would be left presumably on their own, with some stepping forward to declare that their state was now its own nation (of which Texas might be the first to make that declaration; I wouldn't be surprised).
American Civil WarsSeveral states could end up in all out Civil War as a decapitation of the U.S. government would mean an immediate need for leadership, and an immediate crisis and potentially governors vying for power over each other, backed by state police and national guard and possibly even Army, Navy, Marine, and Air Force bases in specific states.
States with large military forces (the largest bases with the biggest armories) may have military generals vying for power over state governors, declaring martial law, creating an immediate military-police state.
Could we really be attacked on Inauguration Day?
Could we lose everyone in line for the Presidency?
Sign Up for our free email newsletter packed with survival tips and tips on preparing for widespread disaster. Topics covered include survival foods, martial law, government collapse, living off the land, self defense, survival hunting, survival fishing, and MORE...
That is one event with some of the highest levels of security and so I think it more likely that an attacking enemy who's goal is to decapitate the U.S. government would be more likely to strike at our leaders in separate attacks, on a different day, on a day we are more likely to be less prepared for it, and not expecting it.
Military hackers have created opportunities to destroy the governmentThe U.S. government is in an all out cyber war, with attacks from foreign hackers taking place on a daily basis. Hackers create the opportunity to spy and intercept communications at every level of government (we already know the supposed ease that a hacker event could take down the power grid), and this creates a danger to the U.S. where communication intercepts can now be used to determine where, when, and how multiple simultaneous attacks could take place that kill just about everyone in line for the presidency.
China is more dangerous than Russia for hacker eventIn my opinion, China has the skills and weapons to be the most dangerous nation. Russia, may be a bit more sloppy than China. Wasn't it several Russian spies that were caught operating in Washington D.C. in recent years? We never hear about Chinese spies being rounded up; China may just be better at it; though we do hear about high level hacks coming from Chinese military installations or buildings in China suspected to house Chinese military.
Whether you're a friend of China or not, you have to admit that when their military is accused of hacking U.S. defense systems on multiple occasions, this makes China a U.S. enemy, and a dangerous enemy at that.
Deception and communication interceptsIntercepting communications is a highly effective way to destroy your enemy; with a government well versed in Sun Tzu's The Art of War, a famous book from ancient Chinese literature, we can expect that tactic, and even more tactics (especially "deception") China would employ if they were to one day go from just cyber attacks to an all out actual attack on the U.S. government.
Communication intercepts create dangerous opportunities for our enemiesWith enough information, and with enough people and weapons in place prior to simultaneous attacks, the President, Vice-President, and right on down the list could each be killed. Would they use assassins? Probably not. Too many things could go wrong and using assassins and snipers and others would be too much of a gamble; wouldn't work in some locations. You might get one U.S. leader. You might get a couple. But you probably wouldn't get all of them.
Short range missiles armed with small nukes are a better choiceI believe it's more likely that short range missiles launched from U.S. homes, U.S. trucks, and even U.S. apartments are more likely to be used, because of the ease and proximity each of these locations offers.
For example, let's say I want to take out the White House. So, I purchase a home within a short distance of the White House, and then over the next several months, working with my government, have pieces from a missile system delivered and then, working with a small team of weapons engineers, proceed to assemble it, on the upstairs floor of my home, where I have a window that looks in the direction of the White House.
The day prior to the attack, my government delivers a nuclear warhead, as small as they come, disguised within a crate that a "furniture company" delivers. To any passersby, it looks like I'm having furniture delivered. Immediately the nuke goes on to the warhead (as rehearsed), and within the hour, at exactly 9am when the President is most likely to be in the White House, the missile is launched and 5 seconds later strikes it's target. The White House is gone.
Simultaneous attacks in several other cities, launched from trucks, or from buildings, or office spaces and penthouses high over the city, decapitate the U.S. government.
They were already here ... that will be the epitaph written on America's gravestone.
United States of America: 1776 - 2019
Survival Supplies for Short Term and Extended Disasters
Learn the "3 Levels" of Supplies for short range, mid range, and extended range disasters.
Some of our regular readers may find the next few paragraphs a bit repetitive; we've said it before, though we do add a few more key details today.
These next paragraphs are for new readers and recent newsletter subscribers; maybe someone you know sent you this article or you found us on a Google search. You're concerned about disaster striking the U.S., even a possible government collapse, or maybe an EMP attack, and now you just want to make sure you and your family can live through the social chaos that is likely to result in just the first few days and weeks.
Experts say most of the population will die in the first yearIt's said that most Americans will die within the first year following an EMP; there is just so much dependence on food retailers, interstate transport, and hospitals and other resources and most people are simply not prepared for the aftermath of an EMP event.
America's enemies know this to. They've done their own data studies. Or they're just listening to what our own experts are warning about the aftermath of an EMP.
Which puts the threat of EMP high, and I mean high, on the list of probable weapons a rogue nation or terrorist group or other enemy could one day attack us with.
Level 1 Supplies
Short Range Disasters
Level 1 Supplies are important items that you will have an immediate need for:1) Emergency drinking water (you better have it)
2) Portable generator for residential use. If you're not comfortable operating a generator, ask yourself why not? Modern, portable generators aren't difficult to operate! I'm not advising on industrial size generators; just those for personal residential use. If you are married to the idea of candles and flashlights for disaster readiness, well, that is your choice.
There are several reasons to consider a generator for low watt devices. Having a backup source of electricity opens the doors to communications and ongoing access to news -- both highly effective survival tools for a government collapse.
Pros of having electricityIf you're ready to go completely without news and give up communications with the outside world, then you don't need electricity. You don't need a backup power supply. But seriously think about the advantages you gain by having backup power.
It's important to get news of events nationwide and even within your state or other outlying towns. It's also important to have a way to recharge two way radios, rechargeable batteries for things like lanterns, etc.
A word on generatorsMany large cities in third world countries are lined with shops that are powered by small generators. Walking down a narrow street and busy marketplace, in some cities you're likely to see dozens or even hundreds of these portable generators everywhere you look, scattered across the city in fact. Many of these generators are older models, they're really loud and probably not as energy efficient as more modern models have become. In other words, a shop owner invests in a generator, and then uses it to supply electricity to his or her shop. Fuel is purchased from local suppliers.
In Western nations we have access to better generators, that are much quieter, and come with several other advantages over those generators used in third world countries. The Yamaha EF1000iS is one of these quieter models, and also made for running low watt devices. Louder, higher watt generators are not necessary for most people, unless you have a specific need to run high watt devices (you'll just need more fuel). Even so, the Honda EU2000I offers higher watt output than the Yamaha yet is still "quieter" than many other generators on the market.
Reasons to go for a quieter modelFollowing a disaster, it may not be safe in some regions to run a generator, if there are possible looters and crooks in the area looking for things to steal. The reason is this: If we lose electricity, generators will be a sought after item by crooks. So, the quieter models are recommended.
When in operation, they still make low level noise though; consider building a large box around your generator, and using various materials to reduce the noise even more. Just be sure that you have enough airflow through your box (give your "sound box" a generous amount of heighth and width with lots of space so your generator doesn't overheat from use). Also make sure that box is vented at the top and bottom to allow for airflow and all fumes can dissipate. Consider building additional "DIY" walls around your box to reduce noise levels even more, even draping thick blankets from rope, even building dirt walls, etc. Basically, every layer of material that you use (even snow, in the winter months) helps reduce sound waves from reaching anyone's ears off in the distance.
3) Fuel storage for your generator. Fuel storage can be as simple as several 5 gallon cans of gasoline stored in a safe place, if gasoline is what your generator runs on; note, gasoline has a short storage life, approximately three months, and then it can degrade drastically from there so that your generator doesn't start when you need it to; so prior to a government collapse or disastrous event, every 90 days put that fuel to use by pouring it into your vehicle(s), and then go and refill your portable fuel containers so you always have a fresh supply on hand capable of carrying you through the first 90 days of a loss of power.
4) 12 Volt Deep Cycle Marine Batteries - Wiring a battery bank will allow you to run your generator during the day, to charge your battery bank, and then run your low watt devices (or recharge your cordless power tools) directly from the battery bank, rather than the generator.
If you are uncomfortable working with battery cables, and battery terminals, I recommend calling a local RV repair shop (they commonly install small battery banks on RVs so that owners have a backup source of power for their electronics on campouts and road trips). See if the RV repair shop is willing to build you a battery bank for your home for an "extended loss of power" (which is all you have to tell the shop as to what your purposes are). If you want to shop around, also consider calling a solar panel shop; let them know you don't want expensive panels, you just need a battery bank, and see what kind of price they offer.
5) Emergency Radio (low watt)
6) Small Television (low watt, low power usage setting if you have that option) for accessing news (if you have a satellite service provider)
7) Computer or laptop (low watt and set on low-power usage setting) for accessing news and connecting with family (as long as you have a satellite service provider, you may still be able to get an internet signal for the first few hours, which is coming from a satellite in space)
What if we're attacked by an EMP?If we lose the power grid, we also lose all news, unless we have a way to pick up international news or even news from Canada or Mexico, if stations in these countries are still broadcasting (that will depend on your proximity to either country and distance from the effects of the EMP.)
8) EMP protection including "DIY" Faraday cages or other materials you're using to shield stored electronics from the effects of EMP, as an EMP may be used as a follow up attack or simultaneous attack following the event that decapitates our government and causes a collapse; engineers and others have published books like Disaster Preparedness for EMP for all the lay folk and other non-engineers out there; thankfully there's a science to EMP protection, following easy to understand steps that are not hard to apply to our home and electronics.
9) Emergency lighting
If you don't have a battery bank and generator, you're going to have to have a large supply of D, C, AA, etc. batteries to power your lanterns, flashlights, etc. There's always those hand crank and solar models as well; but hard to say how much they can be counted on.
There's also the kerosene route, and kerosene lamps, with all its dangers, and that's only recommended for people truly capable of using kerosene lanterns in a safe manner (not recommended if you have children around; one small bump could start a large fire).
If you do have a generator and battery bank, now you can start looking at things like drop lights, commonly used by automotive mechanics; these are really handy to have as a "drop light" is just a light bulb in a protective cage that is connected directly to it's own extension chord.
If you use a low-watt fluorescent bulb, you'll still get plenty of light yet draw less watts from your battery bank than standard 60-75 watt bulbs.
10) Self defense measures (like 'em or hate 'em, firearms have stopped countless numbers of murders over the years; as I write this, just today an armed policeman took down a psychopath on a stabbing spree at Ohio State University; the fact is, sometimes good samaritans have to use lethal force to protect innocents from being murdered by deranged killers)
11) Automatic motion lights for night time security (solar powered and or battery backup)
12) Property Fence (something you should already be thinking about if installing a security fence is an option around your home)
13) Bars on Windows (there's a reason most inner city neighborhoods and even suburbs in outlying areas have homes with bars over windows -- and external steel security doors -- they help reduce the chance of break-in).
14) Security Doors (just mentioned)
15) CB / Marine-Band Radio (if you live near the coast, marine band radio gives you more access to local communications; away from the water, it is illegal to use marine band radio; keep that in mind)
16) High Powered Binoculars (don't hesitate to climb on top of your home for a vantage point; with high powered binoculars, you can study the horizon and outlying areas beyond your town or city, that is as long as you have visibility; if no visibility, you may need to travel a few blocks away to find some other kind of high point). We've advised on binoculars in other articles, pointing out that high powered binocs can cost $1000 - $2000. Outdoor Life recommends the Alpen Apex XP 8x42 due to it's much lower cost ($350) but still high powered optics. Nowadays, Alpen Apex has brought down prices even more with the Alpen Ridge series ($170).
17) Propane supply and a small camp stove which uses less propane than larger models (enabling you to make your propane last longer) for cooking; if you have the capacity to store firewood and have an axe, hatchet, etc, to break into small sticks, you can cook in a backyard fire pit; though it's better to use a Solo Stove, which uses a lot less wood, enabling your wood supply to last several months (rather than just several days).
18) Plywood, 2x4s, nails, handsaw, and cordless power tools, with extra battery packs kept charged (think like a professional contractor; brands like Dewalt and Milwaukee sell bundled sets of power tools nowadays compared to the more expensive route of purchasing sets piece by piece). Now you're able to cut wood, drill, and take on any number of immediate repair needs, including reinforcing your own doors from break-ins and putting up plywood over windows to protect from rocks, etc.
Realize that in a land without police, looters or just vandals may try anything to get inside your home. While it's helpful to work with your neighbors to form a neighborhood watch, it doesn't guarantee complete safety. Having the ability to reinforce doors and windows is likely to be an essential step for most people following a government collapse.
Adequate respiratory protectionA nuclear attack or attack from a bio-chemical weapon that unleashes a dangerous gas or bacteria or virus can make certain areas dangerous to be near, and news allows you to make plans for immediate evacuation or to shelter in place with a chemical protective gas mask if or when it is called for.
Several sources in disaster readiness recommend a simple mask for dust; but really, in this day and age, having a much better mask (that also protects your eyes) for a few dollars more rated for a nuclear or chemical emergency is a smarter way to go than just a dust mask. At some point you're going to have to venture outside and if you're in a region that has been attacked you will want the protection.
Nuclear, chemical and biological emergencies are not science fictionIn this day and age, both nuclear and bio-chemical weapons pose the greatest danger in an attack; both are likely to be used and both are weapons being sought after by terrorist groups and the rogue governments that support them. Like Iran. Like North Korea. We need to realize the consequences of their pursuits. It's not science fiction.
Finally, both Russia and China have large stocks of nuclear and bio-chemical weapons. If these nations ever attack us, we could easily see the full effects of a massive first strike, making several areas dangerous to live and breath without specialized equipment to protect you from the air you breathe. Sheltering in place for the first few days will allow the heaviest fallout from radiation to settle from the air and or toxic gases to dissipate into the atmosphere.
Know the specificsYou can get specifics from this book, U.S. Armed Forces Nuclear, Biological And Chemical Survival Manual (it's too much to cover here).
Finally, when it is safe to emerge (having access to regional news can be a great help in this regard, so that you know when it actually is safe), you may be advised to put on your chemical protective gas mask, not drink from local water supplies (tap, lakes or rivers that have been contaminated by nuclear fallout or other dangers in the air), and finally you may be advised to evacuate to designated areas where relief efforts and "sanctuary cities" are being established.
Be careful though -- anyone could be broadcasting news -- and it may not be safe at allJust a warning: Anyone could be broadcasting that news, including our enemies who may possibly have a plan to deceive survivors on a large scale into seeking relief efforts; as survivors start showing up for food and water and medical supplies, our enemies could have a plan to funnel them right into concentration camps (or worse).
It is a horrible idea to consider, yet it is something that could be part of any plans for attacking and invading the United States, following a collapse of government.
It gets worseWhat if our enemies are dressed like American soldiers? What if they're dressed like the Red Cross or Salvation Army? ... It is the stuff of nightmares of course; but anything is possible in a U.S. collapse, especially knowing just how smart our enemies are, how much many of them can blend in with Americans and may already be here, and just how much time they have had to put into planning for a future attack and occupation. There are a lot of Russians already here. There are a lot of Chinese. You get the picture.
In all reality, it might be a bad idea to let news broadcasts tempt you into seeking food and water from regional relief efforts.
In that case, you better have that food and water already stored up beforehand.
Level 2 Supplies
Mid Range Disasters
Level 2 Supplies (Time without power or services: 1 week - 30 days)1) Emergency food (after 1 week's time you'll likely have eaten everything in your refrigerator, freezer (as it thaws) and pantry. Now you'll need to turn to your supplies of emergency food (which we've discussed in depth in multiple other articles on our website).
2) Backup fuel supply for generator
3) Backup supply of emergency drinking water (500 gallons for 2 - 3 months of use for drinking, cooking, light cleaning)
4) Battery Bank that can power an inverter (in an extended loss of power, that battery bank is really going to be something you're going to want around).
5) Energy efficient emergency low-watt lights, including solar powered (they charge during the day, as long as there is sunshine, and provide lighting at night)
6) Solar powered battery charger for D size, C size, AA size, AAA size batteries, for various lanterns, headlamps, flashlights that use rechargeable batteries.
7) Portable solar panel (have it wired to your battery bank of marine deep cycle batteries; you want deep cycle because they can be depleted to zero power and then fully recharged repeatedly without going bad, unlike most car and truck batteries). This solar panel kit comes with it's own battery -- but it's still a good idea to have your own deep cycle batteries and way to charge from a generator, pedal power bike crank, etc., both mentioned earlier.
Based on product specs, a solar panel this size should come close to fully charging a 100 amp hour battery when left in the sun all day to charge; that's a lot juice for that evening's use of low watt devices when used sparingly throughout the day (once you've tested it out and know how it works, consider 3 or 4 more of these solar panel kits over the coming months to add to your plans for emergency electricity following a government collapse or EMP event.)
8) Bicycle generator (this is a pedal powered generator, not a stationary bike, and a device that can be used in an off grid scenario to recharge deep cycle batteries; like those hand crank emergency lights and radios, you just have to pedal; as you pedal, small amounts of power are generated for charging your battery bank.)
9) Two Way Radios (you're advised to share several two way radios with friends and contacts you make in the neighborhood and beyond, especially those on the outskirts of town or as far out as you're able to venture, following a disaster). In a major disaster, it's common for neighbors to spend time outside, getting to know their other neighbors. Use this as an opportunity to befriend people and make a few new friends that seem to have their wits together; include outlying areas around your neighborhood because those neighbors are your first opportunities for a warning that trouble is approaching.
With each friend that you make, and with each two way radio you are able to provide (if they don't have their own already), explain that if you all have a two way radio, and are all tuned into the same private channel, each of you can alert others in the neighborhood to approaching threats or other important happenings.
10) Emergency whistles (pass these out around the neighborhood and region as well; they can be used to alert other neighbors of approaching threats or as a signal for a meeting or even to evacuate). For example, a repeating series of 2 whistle soundings could be a signal to your neighbors that looters are approaching or actively robbing homes. A series of 3 whistle soundings could be a signal for immediate evacuation to a distant pre-arranged meeting place due to a military threat, armed gang, etc., that it would be too dangerous to face off with.
11) Weapons for self defense (though God can look out for us from up above, not all our readers share Christian beliefs; with that said, you may need to arm up in a big way to defend yourself from the assortment of dangers likely to unfold following a U.S. collapse; your best protection though? Get your life right with God and then seek God's direction on what kind of steps you should take to prepare or even if you should relocate elsewhere in the region; he waits patiently for each one of us to seek him, as the Bible teaches; God does not force himself on us; he lets us choose whether we will follow him, or if we won't.)
12) Case of Bibles (when giving specific warnings about the end of days, Jesus said, "pray to escape all these things that shall come to pass." Just maybe God has a plan to deliver you; others, according to the Bible, are not going to have that assurance in the days ahead, and will not be so lucky.)
When it comes to faith, what side of the line do you currently fall on? How much evidence do you need to finally become a believer?
Don't wait too long to decide. One day we will all be out of time, just like back in Noah's day, when the rains finally began... because a flood is coming.
Level 3 Supplies
Extended Range Disasters
Level 3 Supplies (Time without power or services: 30 days - 12 months)1) Mountain Bike (or other alternative transportation, which may be a horse for some and dirt bike or "dual sport" for others). Don't count on a mountain bike for long distance travel though -- it may not be safe outside your immediate region -- not unless you're an experienced rider and can access remote trails; locally, a mountain bike is a good tool for helping you get around your neighborhood quickly and also get to know neighbors in outlying areas.
2) Siphon kit (after running out of fuel, you're going to need a way to resupply it, and that may mean scavenging outlying areas for fuel; abandoned vehicles will be a great place to find fuel; but you'll need a siphon kit; unless you like the taste of fuel, a siphon kit is a safer and better way to go.)
3) Extra batteries, D, C, AA, AAA (having a few "hand crank" and solar powered lanterns and lights is a smart way to go, but also having battery powered lanterns and lights is strongly encouraged; what if that hand crank breaks? What if you're hiding out deep in a basement somewhere and have no way to recharge a solar powered unit? You'll want good quality battery powered units as back up, and then a lot of batteries (stored in a cool place) as well.
4) Emergency Candles (a large supply of emergency candles is also encouraged; consider turning to these after your battery supply has been used up; another tactic is to use emergency candles in coordination with your battery powered flashlights and lanterns, so that you extend the lifetime of both)
5) Backup solar powered lights (in case the first set you have been using eventually stops working; the longer you spend using equipment in an extended disaster, the more that you may see equipment malfunction at some point; having a backup of all essential gear is recommended.)
6) Vegetable oil, kevlar wicks (for making simple oil burning torches; we have an article on making primitive torches elsewhere on our site; look under "Sections" at the bottom of the site.)
7) Fishing supplies
8) Crabbing supplies (if you live near the coast)
9) Hunting and trapping supplies (if you're capable of light hunting)
10) Supplies for food preservation (preserving your catch for long term storage; important if you want to make it through the next winter)
11) Farming supplies and a bit of know-how
A word on farmingKeep in mind that America is dotted with farms; some of these are large scale commercial installations which will not be able to operate following a loss of the power grid; if you live near one of these installations, following a collapse attempt to barter with the owners, offering to take a number of livestock off their hands; a number of farmers may take you up on some kind of trade, especially if they no longer have employees to work their lands or transportation to ship animals to market; most will be stuck with a surplus of livestock or even any number of foods from a recent harvest they are not prepared to handle.
American pioneers back from the pages of historyWith the right bartering, and a bit of property and some stored feed (food for your livestock), you may land yourself a milking cow, several goats, a bull, several hogs, and the list goes on.
Better know a few things about raising livestock before hand. It's not as easy as it may seem. But once you have the fundamentals down and are comfortable being up close and personal with your animals, it can become a way of life, and help keep you and your family fed and living well out in the countryside or distant wilderness, if you and your animals are forced to make the pilgrimage one day.
Sign Up for the SecretsofSurvival.com free email newsletter packed with survival tips and tips on preparing for widespread disaster. Topics covered include survival foods, martial law, government collapse, living off the land, self defense, survival hunting, survival fishing, and MORE ...(your email address will be kept private).